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Violin Pedagogy: How Did They Learn?

By Dr. Robin Kay Deverich

REFERENCE NOTES

[1] "Amateur," Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1985: 67.

[2] Irving, Howard. "Amateurism," The American Music Teacher. Jan. 1987: 13.

[3] Huang, Hao. "Music and the Amateur," Muzine. Op. 97, No. 1: 1-2.

[4] Locke, Ralph P. "Music Lovers, Patrons, and the 'Sacralization' of Culture in America," 19th Century Music. Vol. 17, No. 2. Fall 1993: 159.

[5] Sousa, John Philip. New York Morning Telegraph, 12 June 1906 and "The Menace of Mechanical Music," Appleton 's 8 Sept. 1906:: 278, 281. Quoted in Emily Thompson, "Machines, Music, and the Quest for Fidelity: Marketing the Edison Phonograph in America , 1877-1925," The Musical Quarterly. Spring, 1995: 139.

[6] Botstein, Leon, "Listening through Reading : Musical Literacy and the Concert Audience," 19th-Cenury Music. Fall, 1992: 138.

[7] Storck, Karl. Geschichte der Musik. Stuttgart , 1910: 782-84; cited by Botstein, 1992: 143-144.

[8] Dilworth, John. "The Violin and Bow-Origins and Development," The Cambridge Companion to the Violin. Ed. Robin Stowell. Cambridge University Press, 1992: 5.

[9] Holman, Peter. Four and Twenty Fiddlers. Oxford University Press, 1993: x.

[10] Zaslaw, Neil. "The Italian Violin School in the 17th Century," Early Music 18, 1990: 515.

[11] Holman, p. 907.

[12] Holman, 1993, p. 89.

[13] Boyden, David D. The History of Violin Playing from Its Origins to 1761 and Its Relationship to the Violin and Violin Music. London : Oxford University Press, 1965: 4.

[14] Boyden, 1965: 31-32.

[15] Woodfield, Ian. "Viol playing techniques in the mid-16th century: A Survey of Ganassi's Fingering Instructions," The Strad. October, 1993, pp. 544-549.

[16] Holman, 1993: 39.

[17] Jennings, John. "Lupo," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 11:336-7. London: Macmillian, 1980.

[18] Holman, 1993: 30.

[19] Ashbee, Andrew and Bellingham , Bruce, Eds. Alfanso Ferrabosco the Younger. 4-Part Fantasias for Viols. Musica Britiannica, vol. 62. London : Stainer & Bell, 1992: xv.

[20] Zaslaw, 1990: 516.

[21] Boyden, Charles; Schwarz, Boris; Slatford, Rodney et al. The New Grove Violin Family. Ed. By Stanley Sadie. London : Macmillan Press, 1989: 36.

[22] Dart, Thurston and Coates, William, Eds. Jacobean Consort Music. Musica Britannica, vol. 9. London: Stainer & Bell, 1966: xv.

[23] Price, David C. Patrons and Musicians of the English Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981: 47.

[24] Boyden, 1989: 36.

[25] Boyden, 1965: 245.

[26] Stowell, Robin. "The Pedagogical Literature," The Cambridge Companion to the Violin. Ed. Robin Stowell. Cambridge University Press, 1992: 277.

[27] Boyden, 1965: 232.

[28] Talbot, Michael. "Vivaldi's Op. 5 Sonatas," The Strad . Vol. 90, 1980: 678.

[29] Walls, Peter. "The Influence of the Italian Violin School in 17th -century England," Early Music. Vol. 18, 1990: 581.

[30] Boyden, 1965: 365.

[31] Stowell, 1992: 229-230.

[32] Kendall, J. "Suzuki's Mother Tongue Method," Music Educators Journal, 1986: 49.

[33] Landers, R. The Talent Education School of Shinichi Suzuki-An Analysis. New York: Exposition Press, 1984

[34] Starr, Kathleen. "Suzuki Association of the Americas," American String Teacher. Summer 1996: 31.

[35] Keene, James. A History of Music Education in the United States. University Press of New England: 1982: 278.

[36] Sollinger, Charles. The Music Men and the Professors-A History of String Class Methods in the U.S. 1800-1911. Unpublished dissertation, University of Michigan, 1970: 99-100.

[37] Sollinger, 1970: 10.

[38] Phillips, Leonard. The Leipzig Conservatory: 1843-1881. Unpublished dissertation, Indiana University,1979: 176-177.

[39] Dwight's Journal of Music, Vol. I, 1852: 20. Quoted by Phillips, 1979: 178-179.

[40] Skyrm, Richard Dean. Oberlin Conservatory: A Century of Musical Growth and Influence. Unpublished dissertation, University of Southern California, 1962: 79.

[41] New England Conservatory Bulletin. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1871: 21. Quoted by Sollinger, 1970: 103.

[42] Sollinger, 1970: 116.

[43] Young, Percy M. A History of British Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1967: 198-99.

[44] Scholes, Percy. The Mirror of Music: 1844-1944. 2 vols. London: Novello, 1947: 3.

[45] Mackerness, E.D. A Social History of English Music. London: Routledge & Kegan, 1964: 200.

[46] Scholes, 1947: 202.

[47] Adams, Keith. "Violin Classes: Their Part in English Adult Education," The Strad. April, 1960: 40.

[48] Scholes, 1947: 362.

[49] The Musical Times. London, October 1986: 77.

[50] "Rate-Aided Schools of Music," Royal Musical Association. May 6, 1889 minutes of discussion. Quoted by Adams , 1960: 77.

[51] "Letter to the Editor," The Strad. Oct. 1896. Quoted by Adams, 1960: 79.

[52] Calendar of the Birkbeck Institute. Quoted by Adams, 1960: 75.

[53] "The Original Maidstone Class," The Young Musician. London: National Union of School Orchestras. Jan/Feb. 1910: 4.

[54] School Music Review. Vol. 26/182: 21. Quoted by Margaret Ledbury in A Historical Review of String Teaching in English State Education from the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day. Unpublished Master of Arts thesis, University of Reading, 1989: 18.

[55] Farnsworth, Charles. "The Teaching of Music in Berlin, Paris and London," MTNA Proceedings. 1908: 145.

[56] "Advertisement," The Young Musician. Sept/Oct. 1909: 1.

[57] "Advertisement," The Young Musician. Sept/Oct. 1911: 1.

[58] "NUSO Annual Conference Report," The Young Musician 1915: 11.

[59] Roberts, William. "The Development of School Orchestras," The Young Musician. Jan/Feb 1910: 4.

[60] "Music and Education," The Young Musician. Sept/Oct 1913: 1.

[61] Hermann, Evelyn. Shinichi Suzuki: The Man and His Philosophy. Athens, Ohio: Ability Development Press, 1981: 10.

[62] Hermann, 1981: 10.

[63] Deverich, Robin Kay. The Influence of the Maidstone Movement on the Early Development of Group String Instruction in England and the United States. Unpublished master's thesis, University of California - Los Angeles, 1983.

[64] Compton, Benjamin. Amateur Instrumental Music in America, 1765 to 1810. Unpublished dissertation, Louisiana State University , 1979: 250.

[65] Eddy, M. Alexandra. "American Violin Method-Books and European Teachers, Geminiani to Spohr," American Music. Summer, 1990: 168.

[66] Eddy, 1990: 169.

[67] Eddy, 1990: 169.

[68] Sollinger, 1970: 11.

[69] Sollinger, 1970: 23.

[70] Sollinger, 1970: 69.

[71] Keene, 1982: 277-8.

[72] Birge, Edward Bailey. History of Public School Music in the United States. Oliver Ditson Co., 1939. rev. edition MENC 1988: 178-9.

[73] Wassell, Albert. "Class String Instruction in America," American String Teachers Association. Part I-X, 1964-1967. Fall 1964: 30-31.

[74] Deverich, Robin K. "The Maidstone Movement-Influential British Precursor of American Public School Instrumental Classes," Journal of Research in Music Education. Spring 1987: 39-55.

[75] Kostick, Julius. Instrumental Music in the Boston Schools. Unpublished master's thesis, Boston U, 1934: 16-18.

[76] All Through the Night is a Welsh folksong that was used by Mitchell and the British Maidstone School Orchestra Association. This piece can be found in Mitchell's The Public School Class Method for the Violin. Boston : Oliver Ditson Co., 1912, 3 rd edition, 1916, and, The New Maidstone Violin Tutor. London: The Maidstone Scoool Orchestra Association, 1899, rev. ed. 1933.

[77] Wassell, Fall 1966: 39.

[78] Wassell, Fall 1965: 41.

[79] "The Story of the Supervisors Conference at Grand Rapids," School Music. Mar/April 1917: 36-42.

[80] Sollinger 1970: 163-172.

[81] Earhart, Will. "Vocal and Instrumental Class Instruction in Specialized Musical Technique," Papers and Reports of the School Music Conference. Music Teachers National Association Proceedings for 1924 Hartford, Connecticut : Music Teachers National Association, 1925: 8-9.

[82] Wassell, Fall 1966: 39.

[83] Wassell, Winter 1965: 42.

[84] Wassell, Winter 1965: 42,47.