Violin Online String Class: 20th Century Violin Music



[1] White, Eric Walter. Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979: 48.

[2] Whittall, Arnold, "Neo-classicism," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 21 June 2008), <>

[3] Massine, Leonide. My Life in Ballet. ed. Phyllis Hartnoll and Robert Rubens. London: Macmillan, 1968: 128-129.

[4] Carson, Penelope Hummer. Pulcinella and his Friends: Comic Origins of New-Classicism in Music for Diaghilev's Stage Works. M.A. thesis, The American University, 1986.

[5] Paymer, Marvin E., and Williams, Hermine W., Giovanni Battista Pergolesi: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland Publishing, 1989: 8.

[6] Gallo's instrumental compositions were frequently sold using Pergolesi's name as the composer. For example, Pergolesi was attributed as the composer for Gallo's Twelve Sonatas for Two Violins and a Bass in the following London editions: 1771, printed "for Mr. Webb, etc.;" 1780, R. Bremmer; 1795, Preston and Son; 1894, J. Williams (see British Library catalogue for more editions).

[7] Brook, Barry S. "Stravinsky's Pulcinella: the 'Pergolesi' Sources." In Musique signes images: Liber amicorum Francois Lesure, edited by Joel-Marie Fauquet. Geneva: Minkoff, 1988: 41-66. cited by Paymer, 156.

[8] Paymer, ix.

[9] Brook, Barry S. "Pergolesi: Vindication after 250 Years," The Musical Times, Vol. 127, Mar., 1986: 141-145.

[10] The Pergolesi Research Center (Accessed 14 August 2008) <>

[11] Walsh, Stephen, "Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 21 August 2007) <>

[12] Calvocoressi, M. D., "Maurice Ravel," The Musical Times, Vol. 54, 1913: 785-787.

[13] MacDonald, Hugh, "Ravel and the Prix de Rome," The Musical Times, Vol. 116, 1975: 332-333.

[14] Kelley, Barbara L. "Ravel, "(Joseph) Maurice Ravel," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 26 August 2007) <>

[15] Bailey, Kathryn, "Anton (Friedrich Wilhelm von) Webern," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 27 June 2008) <>

[16] Shakers, officially known as United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, are a Protestant religious denomination that branched off from the Quakers in England, and emigrated to the United States in 1774. Only a handful of followers still practice this religion today. See Chase, Stacey. "The Last Ones Standing," The Boston Globe, July 23, 2006. (Accessed 29 June 2008) <>

[17] Hall, Roger L. "Joseph Brackett's 'Simple Gifts'," Shaker Music. (Accessed 1 May 2008) <>

[18] Andrews, Edward Deming. The Gift to be Simple: Songs, Dances and Rituals of the American Shakers. New York, 1940.

[19] Yellin, Victor Fell and Hitchcock, Wiley, "American Shakers," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 28 June 2008), <>

[20] Shaker Songs: A Musical Celebration of Peace, Harmony, and Simplicity. Compiled and edited by Christian Goodwillie with contributions from Joel Cohen. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2002.

[21] Pegg, Carole; Myers, Helen; Bohlman, Philip B.; and Stokes, Martin. "Ethnomusicology," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 30 June 2008), <>

[22] Whitaker, Frank. "A Visit to Béla Bartók," The Musical Times. Vol. 67, No. 997. 1926: 220-223.

[23] Bartók, Béla and Dille, Denijs. "The Life of Béla Bartók," Tempo, New Series, No. 13, Autumn, 1949: 3-7.

[24] Bartok, Bela and Baker, Theodore. "Hungarian Peasant Music," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3. 1933: 267-287.

[25] Gillies, Malcolm. "Béla Bartók," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 21 August 2007) <>

Fig. 5.1 The Violin. Oil on three-ply panel by Juan Gris, 1917.

Fig. 5.2 Stravinsky. George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress: LC-B2- 5464-2.

Fig. 5.3 Maurice Ravel, photograph from Calvocoressi, M.D. "Maurice Ravel," The Musical Times. Dec. 1, 1913.

Fig. 5.4 Anton Webern, photograph, 1912.

Fig. 5.5 Shakers singing and dancing. Engraving, 1840.

Fig. 5.6 Béla Bartók. signed high school graduation photograph, 1899.

Although this online string class is provided free of charge, all rights are reserved and this content is protected by international copyright law. It is illegal to copy, post or publish this content in any form, and displaying any of this material on other websites, blogs or feeds is prohibited. Permission is given for individual users to print pages and perform music from this website for their personal, noncommercial use.