Violin Pedagogy: How Did They Learn?

by Dr. Robin Kay Deverich

[1] "Amateur," Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1985: 67.

[2]Irving, Howard. "Amateurism, The American Music Teacher. Jan. 1987: 13.

[3]Huang, Hao. "Music and the Amateur," Muzine. Op. 97, No. 1: 1-2.

[4]Locke, Ralph P. "Music Lovers, Patrons, and the 'Sacralization' of Culture in America," 19th Century Music. Vol. 17, No. 2. Fall 1993: 159.

[5]Sousa, John Philip. New York Morning Telegraph, 12 June 1906 and "The Menace of Mechanical Music," Appleton's 8 Sept. 1906: 278, 281. Quoted in Emily Thompson, "Machines, Music, and the Quest for Fidelity: Marketing the Edison Phonograph in America, 1877-1925," The Musical Quarterly. Spring, 1995: 139.

[6]Botstein, Leon, "Listening through Reading: Musical Literacy and the Concert Audience," 19th-Cenury Music. Fall, 1992: 138.

[7]Storck, Karl. Geschichte der Musik. Stuttgart, 1910: 782-84; cited by Botstein, 1992: 143-144.

[8]Dilworth, John. "The Violin and Bow-Origins and Development," The Cambridge Companion to the Violin. Ed. Robin Stowell. Cambridge University Press, 1992: 5.

[9]Holman, Peter. Four and Twenty Fiddlers. Oxford University Press, 1993: x.

[10]Zaslaw, Neil. "The Italian Violin School in the 17th Century," Early Music 18, 1990: 515.

[11]Holman, p. 907.

[12]Holman, 1993, p. 89.

[13]Boyden, David D. The History of Violin Playing from Its Origins to 1761 and Its Relationship to the Violin and Violin Music. London : Oxford University Press, 1965: 4.

[14]Boyden, 1965: 31-32.

[15]Woodfield, Ian. "Viol playing techniques in the mid-16th century: A Survey of Ganassi's Fingering Instructions," The Strad. October, 1993, pp. 544-549.

[16]Holman, 1993: 39.

[17]Jennings, John. "Lupo," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.  Ed. Stanley Sadie. London : Macmillian, 1980. 11:336-37.

[18]Holman, 1993: 30.

[19]Ashbee, Andrew and Bellingham , Bruce, Eds. Alfanso Ferrabosco the Younger. 4-Part Fantasias for Viols. Musica Britiannica, vol. 62. London : Stainer & Bell, 1992: xv.

[20]Zaslaw, 1990: 516.

[21]Boyden, Charles; Schwarz, Boris; Slatford, Rodney et al. The New Grove Violin Family. Ed. By Stanley Sadie. London : Macmillan Press, 1989: 36.

[22]Dart, Thurston and Coates, William, Eds. Jacobean Consort Music. Musica Britannica, vol. 9. London: Stainer & Bell, 1966: xv.

[23]Price, David C. Patrons and Musicians of the English Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981: 47.

[24]Boyden, 1989: 36.

[25]Boyden, 1965: 245

[26]Stowell, Robin. "The Pedagogical Literature," The Cambridge Companion to the Violin. Ed. Robin Stowell. Cambridge University Press, 1992: 277.

[27]Boyden, 1965: 232.

[28]Talbot, Michael. "Vivaldi's Op. 5 Sonatas," The Strad . Vol. 90, 1980: 678.

[29]Walls, Peter. "The Influence of the Italian Violin School in 17 th -century England ," Early Music. Vol. 18, 1990: 581.

[30]Boyden, 1965: 365.

[31]Stowell, 1992: 229-230.

[32]Kendall, J. "Suzuki's Mother Tongue Method," Music Educators Journal, 1986: 49.

[33]Landers, R. The Talent Education School of Shinichi Suzuki-An Analysis. New York: Exposition Press, 1984.

[34]Starr, Kathleen. "Suzuki Association of the Americas," American String Teacher. Summer 1996: 31.

[35]Keene, James. A History of Music Education in the United States. University Press of New England, 1982: 278.

[36]Sollinger, Charles. The Music Men and the Professors-A History of String Class Methods in the U.S. 1800-1911. Unpublished dissertation, University of Michigan, 1970: 99-100.

[37]Sollinger, 1970: 10.

[38]Phillips, Leonard. The Leipzig Conservatory: 1843-1881. Unpublished dissertation, Indiana
University, 1979: 176-177.

[39]Dwight's Journal of Music, Vol. I, 1852: 20. Quoted by Phillips, 1979: 178-179.

[40]Skyrm, Richard Dean. Oberlin Conservatory: A Century of Musical Growth and Influence. Unpublished dissertation, University of Southern California, 1962: 79.

[41]New England Conservatory Bulletin. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1871: 21. Quoted by Sollinger, 1970: 103.

[42]Sollinger, 1970: 116.

[43]Young, Percy M. A History of British Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1967: 198-99.

[44]Scholes, Percy. The Mirror of Music: 1844-1944. 2 vols. London: Novello, 1947: 3.

[45]Mackerness, E.D. A Social History of English Music. London: Routledge & Kegan, 1964: 200.

[46]Scholes, 1947: 202.

[47]Adams, Keith. "Violin Classes: Their Part in English Adult Education," The Strad. April, 1960: 40.

[48]Scholes, 1947: 362.

[49]The Musical Times. London, October 1986: 77..

[50]"Rate-Aided Schools of Music," Royal Musical Association. May 6, 1889 minutes of discussion. Quoted by Adams, 1960: 77.

[51]"Letter to the Editor," The Strad. Oct. 1896. Quoted by Adams, 1960: 79.

[52]Calendar of the Birkbeck Institute. Quoted by Adams, 1960: 75.

[53]"The Original Maidstone Class," The Young Musician. London: National Union of School Orchestras. Jan/Feb. 1910: 4.

[54] School Music Review. Vol. 26/182: 21. Quoted by Margaret Ledbury in A Historical Review of String Teaching in English State Education from the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day. Unpublished Master of Arts thesis, University of Reading, 1989: 18..

[55]Farnsworth, Charles. "The Teaching of Music in Berlin, Paris and London," MTNA Proceedings. 1908: 145.

[56]"Advertisement," The Young Musician. Sept/Oct. 1909: 1.

[57]"Advertisement," The Young Musician. Sept/Oct. 1911: 1.

[58]"NUSO Annual Conference Report," The Young Musician 1915: 11.

[59]Roberts, William. "The Development of School Orchestras," The Young Musician. Jan/Feb 1910: 4.

[60]"Music and Education," The Young Musician . Sept/Oct 1913: 1.

[61]Hermann, Evelyn. Shinichi Suzuki: The Man and His Philosophy. Athens, Ohio: Ability Development Press, 1981: 10.

[62]Hermann, 1981: 10.

[63]Deverich, Robin Kay. The Influence of the Maidstone Movement on the Early Development of Group String Instruction in England and the United States. Unpublished master's thesis, University of California - Los Angeles, 1983.

[64]Compton, Benjamin. Amateur Instrumental Music in America, 1765 to 1810. Unpublished dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1979: 250.

[65]Eddy, M. Alexandra. "American Violin Method-Books and European Teachers, Geminiani to Spohr," American Music. Summer, 1990: 168.

[66]Eddy, 1990: 169.

[67]Eddy, 1990: 169.

[68]Sollinger, 1970: 11.

[69]Sollinger, 1970: 23.

[70]Sollinger, 1970: 69.

[71]Keene, 1982: 277-8.

[72]Birge, Edward Bailey. History of Public School Music in the United States. Oliver Ditson Co., 1939. rev. edition MENC 1988: 178-9.

[73]Wassell, Albert. "Class String Instruction in America," American String Teachers Association. Part I-X, 1964-1967. Fall 1964: 30-31.

[74]Deverich, Robin K. "The Maidstone Movement-Influential British Precursor of American Public School Instrumental Classes," Journal of Research in Music Education. Spring 1987: 39-55.

[75]Kostick, Julius. Instrumental Music in the Boston Schools. Unpublished master's thesis, Boston U, 1934: 16-18.

[76]All Through the Night is a Welsh folksong that was used by Mitchell and the British Maidstone School Orchestra Association. This piece can be found in Mitchell's The Public School Class Method for the Violin. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1912, 3rd edition, 1916, and, The New Maidstone Violin Tutor. London: The Maidstone Scoool Orchestra Association, 1899, rev. ed. 1933.

[77]Wassell, Fall 1966: 39.

[78]Wassell, Fall 1965: 41.

[79]"The Story of the Supervisors Conference at Grand Rapids," School Music. Mar/April 1917: 36-42.

[80]Sollinger 1970: 163-172.

[81]Earhart, Will. "Vocal and Instrumental Class Instruction in Specialized Musical Technique," Papers and Reports of the School Music Conference. Music Teachers National Association Proceedings for 1924. Hartford, Connecticut: Music Teachers National Association, 1925: 8-9.

[82]Wassell, Fall 1966: 39.

[83]Wassell, Winter 1965: 42.

[84]Wassell, Winter 1965: 42,47.