Violin Online String Class: Non-Traditional Violin Music

REFERENCES

SECTION 6.18

[1] Wilkinson, Irén Kertész. "'Gypsy' [Roma-Sinti-Traveller] Music," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 20 August 2007) <http://www.grovemusic.com>

[2] Shapiro, Michael. "They Call Themselves Roma," Roots World (Accessed 9 May 2007) <http://www.rootsworld.com/rw/gypsypage.html>

[3] Glass, Herbert, "Romany life: What is the Gypsy idiom?" Opera News. New York: Mar. 16, 1997. Vol. 60, 13: 18-21.

[4] Nickson, Chris. "Roma (Gypsy) Music," National Geographic.  (Accessed 1 July 2008) <http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/worldmusic/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/
roma__gypsy__music_778>

[5] Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western Music and Film. New York: Routledge, 2004: 377.

[6] Bartók, Béla. "Gypsy Music or Hungarian Music?" The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 2. Apr., 1947: 240-257.

[7] Kovalcsik, Katalin. "Popular Dance Music Elements in the Folk Music of Gypsies in Hungary," Popular Music, Vol. 6, No. 1. Jan., 1987: 45-65.

[8] Frigyesi, Judit. "Béla Bartók and the Concept of Nation and 'Volk' in Modern Hungary," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2. Summer, 1994: 255-287.

[9]Feldman, Walter Z. "Bulgărească/Bulgarish/Bulgar: The Transformation of a Klezmer Dance Genre," Ethnomusicology, Vol. 38, No. 1. Winter, 1994: 1-35.

[10] Netsky, Hankus. "An Overview of Klezmer Music and its development in the U.S," Judaism. Winter, 1998: 5-12.

[11] Feldman, Walter Zev. "Klezmer (Jewish Music, Non-liturgical instrumental music)," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 20 August 2007) <http://www.grovemusic.com>

[12] Netsky, Hankus. "American Klezmer: A Brief History," American Klezmer : its Roots and Offshoots, ed. by Mark Slobin. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002: 14.

[13] Solomon, Sophie. "Klezmer Violin Technique," The Strad. Jan., 2007: 62-65.

[14] Horowitz, Josh. "The Main Klezmer Modes," Klezmer Shack. (Accessed 9 May 2007) <http://www.klezmershack.com/articles/horowitz/horowitz.klezmodes.html>

[15] Feldman, 1994: 1.

[16] Chianis, Sotirios. "Greece, Folk Music," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980. 7: 675.

[17] Mathiesen, Thomas J. et al. "Greece," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 21 August 2007) <http://www.grovemusic.com>

[18] "Traditional Stringed Instruments of Greece," Hellenic Communication Service. (Accessed 5 July 2008) <http://www.helleniccomserve.com/stringintruments.html>

[19] Magrini, Tullia. "Repertories and identities of a musician from Crete," Ethnomusicology OnLine Symposium on Mediterranean Musicians. (Accessed 2 August 2007) <http://www.research.umbc.edu/eol/3/magrini/index.html>

[20] Ibid.

[21] Raphael, Souzana. "The Hidden Treasure: Traditional Music in Greece," Matt Barrett's Greece Travel Guide. (Accessed 5 July 2008) <http://www.greecetravel.com/music/traditional.html>

[22] "Greece: Mapping the Sounds of Folk Music," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 8: Europe, ed. Timothy Rice, James Porter, and Chris Goertzen: 2000. (Accessed 6 February 20009)

[23] Holden, Rickey and Vouras, Mary. Greek Folk Dances. Newark, New Jersey: Folkraft Press, 1965: 9.

[24] Patsidou, Lena. "Greek Dancing Through the Centuries: the history and evolution of Greek dance," Research on the History of Greek Dance (Accessed 5 July 2008) <http://www.annaswebart.com/culture/dancehistory/>

[25] Stratou, Dora. Greek Folk Dances. Greece: National Greek Folk Dances and Songs Society, 1965.

[26] Crosfield, Domini. Dances of Greece. New York: Chanticleer Press, 1948.

[27] Aguilar n.d.:125-26, in Járuregui 1990:18, quoted by Daniel Sheehy in  Mariachi Music in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006: 15.

[28] Béhague, Gerard; Chamorro, Arturo and Stanford, E. Thomas. "Mexico, Traditional Music: Mestizo forms," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 6 May 2007) <http://www.grovemusic.com>

[29] Henriques, Donald Andrew. Performing nationalism: Mariachi, media and transformation of a tradition (1920--1942)  Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2006.

[30] Clark, Jonathan D. "A Brief History on the Mariachi Tradition," The Latino Encyclopedia. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp, 1996.  Mariachi Publishing Company (Accessed 15 May 2007) <http://www.sobrino.net/mer/entry_on_the_word_mariachi.htm>

[31] Mendoza, Vicente T. and Fraser, Norman. "The Frontiers between 'Popular' and 'Folk.'" Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 7. 1955: 24-27.

[32] Sobrino, Laura. "Analyzing Mariachi Traditional and Popular Song Forms," Mariachi Publishing Company (Accessed 17 May 2007) <http://www.mariachipublishing.com>

[33] Sheehy, Daniel Edward; Olsen, Dale A. "Mexico," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Volume 2: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. ed. Dale A. Olson and Daniel E. Sheehy. Routledge: 1998. (Accessed 19 July 2008) <http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com>

[34] "Jarabe Tapatio," Danzas y Trajes Tipicos de Jalisco. Gobierno de Jalisco, Secretaria de Cultura. (Accessed 11 July 2008) <http://cultura.jalisco.gob.mx/danzaytraje/jtapatio.html>

[35] Medina, Notario Antonio García. "Mariachi, Son y Jarabe," Ensayo cultural: Revista Digital de Derecho, Colegio de Notarios de Jalisco, Mexico (Accessed 11 July 2008) <http://www.revistanotarios.com/?q=node/17>

[36] Fuld, James J. The Book of World-Famous Music. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1985: 366-67.

[37] "The Mexican Hat Dance," Mexican Folkloric Dance Company of Chicago. (accessed 6 May 2008) <http://www.mexfoldanco.org/jarabe.shtml>

[38] Ibid.

[39] Díaz, Alicia. "Dance and Dance Forms," The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States. Suzanne Oboler and Deena J. González, Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. (Accessed 11 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordreference.com>

[40] "Jarabe (noun)," The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English. ed. Jennifer Speake. Berkley Books, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. (Accessed 11 July 2008), <http://www.oxfordreference.com>

[41] "Zapateado (noun)" The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English. ed. Jennifer Speake. Berkeley Books, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. (Accessed 11 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordreference.com>

[42] "China," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea. ed. Robert C. Provine, Yosihiko Tokumaru, and Lawrence Witzleben. Routledge: 2001. (Accessed 18 July 2008) <http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com>

[43] Han, Kuo-Huang. "Folk Songs of the Han Chinese: Characteristics and Classifications," Asian Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Chinese Music Theory. Spring-Summer, 1989: 107-128.

[44] Thrasher, Alan R. et al. "China," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 18 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[45] Provine, Robert C.; Tokumaru, Yosihiko and Witzleben, J. Lawrence. "China: A Musical Profile," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea. ed. Robert C. Provine, Yosihiko Tokumaru, and Lawrence Witzleben. Routledge: 2001. (Accessed 18 July 2008) <http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com>

[46] Jones, Stephen. "Source and Stream: Early Music and Living Traditions in China," Early Music, Vol. 24, No. 3, Early Music from Around the World. Aug., 1996: 375-388.

[47] Thrasher, Alan R. "The Melodic Structure of Jiangnan Sizhu," Ethnomusicology, Vol. 29, No. 2. Spring-Summer, 1985: 237-263.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Lu-Ting, Ho and Kuo-huang, Han. "On Chinese Scales and National Modes," Asian Music, Vol. 14, No. 1. 1982: 132-154.

[50] Yingshi, Chen; Provine, Robert C.; Tokumaru, Yosihiko and Witzleben, J. Lawrence, "Theory and Notation in China," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea. ed. Robert C. Provine, Yosihiko Tokumaru, and Lawrence Witzleben. Routledge: 2001. (Accessed 18 July 2008) <http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com>

[51] Thrasher, Alan R. "The Melodic Structure of Jiangnan Sizhu," Ethnomusicology, Vol. 29, No. 2. Spring-Summer, 1985: 254.

[52] Liu, Terence Michael.  Development of the Chinese Two-Stringed Bowed Lute 'Erhu" Following the New Culture Movement (c. 1915-1985).  Ph.D. dissertation, Kent State University, 1988.

[53] Stock, Jonathan. "A Historical Account of the Chinese Two-Stringed Fiddle Erhu," The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 46. March 1993: 83-113.

[54] Stock, Jonathan. "Erhu," Abing, His Life and His Music.  (Accessed 7 July 2008) <http://www.shef.ac.uk/music/staff/js/AbErhu.html>

[55] Stock, Jonathan P.J. "Liu Tianhua." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 18 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[56] Wu, Ben; Provine, Robert C.; Tokumaru, Yosihiko and Witzleben, J. Lawrence, "Archaeology and History of Musical Instruments in China," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea. ed. Robert C. Provine, Yosihiko Tokumaru, and Lawrence Witzleben. Routledge: 2001. (Accessed 18 July 2008) <http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com>

[57] Micic, Peter. "The Jasmine Crossing," Danwei (Accessed 17 May 2008) <http://www.danwei.org/music/the_jasmine_crossing_by_peter.php>

[58] Lim, Louisa. "Chinese Composer Gives 'Turandot' a Fresh Finale," NPR (Accessed 17 May 2008) <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90037060&ft=1&f=1105>

[59] Quershi, Regula, et al. "India," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 13 Jul. 2008 ) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[60] Powers, Harold S. "India," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980. 9: 69-141.

[61] "The Classical Traditions," The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online. Vol. 5: South Asia: The Indian Subcontintent, ed. Alison Arnold. Routledge: 2001. (Accessed 13 October 2008) <http://glnd.alexanderstreet.com>

[62] Swift, Gordon. "Ornamentation in South Indian Music and the Violin," Carnatic Corner (Accessed 21 August 2007) <http://www.www.carnaticcorner.com/articles/violin_technique_article.pdf>

[63] Swift, Gordon. The Violin as Cross-cultural Vehicle: Ornamentation in South Indian Violin and Its Influence on a style of Western Violin Improvisation. Ph.D. dissertation, Wesleyan University, 1989.

[64] Wade, Bonnie. Music in India. New Delhi: Manohar, 2004.

[65] Krishnan, G.J.R. "The Rise of Violin in the South-Adaptation at its Best," Paper presented at The Chembur Fine Arts Society in Mumbai, India, Feb. 1999 (Accessed 5 February 2009) .

[66] Lord, Maria. "Tyāgarāja." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 13 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[67] Swift, Gordon. "Exploring Carnatic Violin," Strings, Feb. 2005: 63-67.

[68] Racy, Ali Jihad. "Arab Music," The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance. ed. John Hayes. New York University Press, 1992.

[69] Marcus, Scott. "The Interface between Theory and Practice: Intonation in Arab Music," Asian Music, Vol. 24, No. 2. Spring-Summer, 1993: 39-58.

[70] Marcus, Scott. Arab Music Theory in the Modern Period. Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA, 1989: 161-240.

[71] Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1996: 47.

[72] Wright, Owen; Poché, Christian; and Shiloah, Amnon. "Arab Music," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 8 August 2007) <http://www.grovemusic.com>

[73] Racy, 1992.

[74] Racy, Ali Jihad. "The Many Faces of Improvisation: The Arab Taqāsīm as a Musical Symbol," Ethnomusicology, Vol. 44, No. 2. Spring-Summer, 2000: 308.

[75] Racy, 1992.

[76] Racy, Ali Jihad. Making Music in the Arab World. Cambridge: University Press, 2003: 77.

[77] Juma, Rashed. A Guide to Arabic Violin Technique for the Classical Violinist. D.M.A. dissertation, University of Miami, 2002: 17-18.

[78] Wright, "Arab Music," Grove Music Online.

[79] "Arabic Musical Forms: The Longa," Maqam World. (Accessed 15 July 2008) <http://www.maqamworld.com/forms.html>

[80] Rosenberg, Neil V. "The Classification of Traditional Instrumental Music," The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 108, No. 428. Spring, 1995: 188.

[81] Stokes, Martin. "Tanburi Cemil Bey." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 16 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[82] "Tanburi Cemil Bey," Türk Mûsikîsi. (Accessed 15 July 2008) <http://www.turkmusikisi.com/bestekarlar/tanburicemilbey.htm>

[83] Tanrikorur, Cinuçen. "The Ottoman Music," translated by Dr. Savaş Ş. Barkçin Türk Mûsikîsi (Accessed 16 July 2008) <http://www.turkmusikisi.com/osmanli_musikisi/the_ottoman_music.htm>

[84] Walter Zev Feldman. "Ottoman music," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 16 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[85] Reel, James. "Learning Arabic: Leanne Darling offers an Introduction to this Vibrant Musical Style," Strings.  November 2006: 28-29.

[86] Juma, 2002: 19-24.

[87] Remnant, Mary. "Fiddle," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 20 August 2007) <http://www.grovemusic.com>

[88] Remnant, Mary and Goertzen, Chris. "Hardanger fiddle," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 19 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[89] Montagu, Jeremy. "Fiddle," The Oxford Companion to Music. ed. Alison Latham. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 19 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[90] "Spike fiddle," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 19 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[91] Djedje, Jacqueline Cogdell. Fiddling in West Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press: 2008.

[92] Haigh, Chris. Fiddling Around the World. (Accessed 21 July 2008) <http://www.fiddlingaround.co.uk>

[93] Hebert, Donna. "The reel deal," Strings. May-Jun. 2002, Vol. 16, 8: 28-31.

[94] Lieberman, Julie Lyonn.  Alternative Strings:  the New Curriculum.  Cambridge: Amadeus Press, 2004.

[95] Lieberman, Julie Lyonn. The Contemporary Violinist. New York: Huiksi Music, 2005.

[96] Goertzen, Chris, Wilgus, D.K., and Crawford, Richard et al. "United States of America," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 22 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[97] Rosenberg, Neil V. "Bluegrass music," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 24 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[98] "A Brief History of Cajun, Creole, & Zydeco Music," LSUE's Central Acadiana Gateway. (Accessed 24 July 2008) <http://www.lsue.edu/acadgate/music/history.htm>

[99] Olsen, Dale A. "An Ethnomusicological Survey of the Cajuns of Louisiana: An Introduction to Cajun Music and Culture,"  Ethnomusicology as Advocacy.  (Accessed 24 July 2008) <http://mailer.fsu.edu/~dolsen/advocacy/Cajun/cajun.htm>

[100] "Cajun music," The Oxford Companion to Music. ed. Alison Latham. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 24 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[101] "Cajun Music," Encyclopedia of Cajun Culture. ed. Shane K. Bernard. (Accessed 24 July 2008) <http://web.archive.org/web/20051213013220/www.cajunculture.com/Other/cajun.htm>

[102] Burman-Hall, Linda C. "Southern American Folk Fiddle Styles," Ethnomusicology. Vol. 19, No. 1. Jan., 1975: 47-65.

[103] Graf, Sharon Poulson. Traditionalization at the National Oldtime Fiddlers' Contest: Politics, power, and authenticity. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1999.

[104] Malone, Bill C. and Pugh, Ronnie. "Hillbilly music," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 22 July 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[105] "Humphrey, Mark. "What is Old-Time Music?" The Old Time Music Home Page. (Accessed 21 July 2008) <http://www.oldtimemusic.com/otdef.html>

[106] Tribe, Ivan M. "Country Music," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 24 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[107] Malone, Bill C. "Western swing," The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd ed., ed. Barry Kernfeld. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (Accessed July 25, 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[108] Smithers, Aaron. "What is Western Swing Fiddling?" Texas Folklife Resources: Study Guide—Western Swing.  (Accessed 21 July 2008) <http://web.archive.org/web/20020816131707/http://www.main.org/tfr/sg_swing.htm>

[109] Zenger, Dixie Robison. Violin Techniques and Traditions Useful in Identifying and Playing North American Fiddle Styles. D.M.A. dissertation, Stanford University, 1980.

[110] "Fiddling," Encyclopedia of Music in Canada; The Canadian Encyclopedia. (Accessed 21 July 2008) <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0001206>

[111] Graham, Glenn. Cape Breton fiddle music: The making and maintenance of a tradition. M.A. thesis, Saint Mary's University, Canada: 2004.

[112] Carr, Kevin. "Quebecois fiddling," Strings. July 2001, Vol. 16, 1: 28-29.

[113] "Who Are the Métis?" Métis National Council. (Accessed 21 July 2008) <http://www.metisnation.ca/who/index.html>

[114] "Traditional Metis Music And Dance," Metis Culture & Heritage Resource Centre Inc. (Accessed 21 July 2008) <http://www.metisresourcecentre.mb.ca/history/music.htm>

[115] Surette, David. "The British Aisles," Strings. Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol. 8, 4: 84-89.

[116] Cranitch, Matt. The Irish Fiddle Book: The Art of Traditional Fiddle Playing  Cork, Ireland: 2001.

[117] Bjorndal, Arne. "The Hardanger Fiddle: The Tradition, Music Forms and Style," Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 8. 1956: 13-15.

[118] Neal, Mary Elizabeth. Devil's instrument, national instrument: The Hardanger fiddle as metaphor of experience in the creation and negotiation of cultural identity in Norway. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1991.

[119] Vollsnes, Arvid O. et al. "Norway," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 23 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[120] Bohlin, Folke et al. "Sweden," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 23 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

[121] Brashers, Bart. "A Brief History of the Nyckelharpa," The American Nyckelharpa Association. (Accessed 23 July 2008) <http://www.nyckelharpa.org/resources/history.html>

[122] Fredelius, Gunnar. "Nyckelharpa," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 23 Jul. 2008) <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>

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[125] Rosén, Anders, "The Orsa style in perspective," Hurv. (Accessed 24 July 2008) <http://www.hurv.com/english/articles/orsa/orsa-style-eng.htm>

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Fig. 6.1 Galaxy of Musicians. Oil by Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1896).

Fig. 6.2 19th century print of Roma musicians.

Fig. 6.3 Klezmer Musicians, 1895, Magyar Néprajzi Múzeum, Hungary.

Fig. 6.4 Greek Byzantine era dancers. Fresco, 16th century. Monastery, Koutloumousiou, Mount Athos, Greece.

Fig. 6.5 Jarabe Tapatio, postage stamp.

Fig. 6.6 Chinese instrumentalists, ancient Chinese engraving.

Fig. 6.7 Erhu, Chinese folk instrument.

Fig. 6.8 Poster for premiere of Turandot opera, 1926.

Fig. 6.9 Tyāgarāja, portrait.

Fig. 6.10 Tanburi Cemil Bey, photograph.

Fig. 6.11 Fiddlin' Bill Hensley, a famous old-time fiddler. Asheville, North Carolina. Photograph by Ben Shahn. Library of Congress: LC-USF33-006258-M3.

Fig. 6.12 Irish Jig postcard. early 1900s.

Fig. 6.13 Maple Leaf Rag, sheet music cover. Maple Leaf Rag, by Scott Joplin, was first published by John Stark & Son in 1899. This cover is from the third edition.

Fig. 6.14 Scott Joplin, portrait. Taken from American Musician, June 17, 1907. Performing Arts Reading Room, Library of Congress.

Fig. 6.15 The Ragtime Violin. Cover from The Ragtime Violin sheet music, composed by Irving Berlin, and published in 1911 by Ted Snyder Co., New York.

Fig. 6.16 The Castle Walk. Cover from The Castle Walk sheet music, composed by published in 1913 by Joseph W. Stern & Company, New York. Vernon and Irene Castle are shown on the front cover, dancing.

Fig. 6.17 William Christopher Handy. Carl Van Vechten Collection, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division: LC-USZ62-42531

Fig. 6.18 St. Louis Blues, sheet music cover. Originally published: New York: Handy Bros. Music Co., 1914.


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